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Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

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isha
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#101

Post by isha »

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Amethyst Figure of the Goddess Taweret
Egyptian · New Kingdom,
18th Dynasty, 1500 - 1391 B.C.
Height 1.9 inches.

Taweret - ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility.
The deity is typically depicted as a bipedal female hippopotamus with feline attributes, pendulous female human breasts, the limbs and paws of a lion, and the back and tail of a Nile crocodile
- Wikipedia
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isha
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#102

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Very interesting. Why has Roman concrete endured two thousand years while modern concrete crumbles quite quickly? Answers in this study

https://news.mit.edu/2023/roman-concret ... casts-0106

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Studying samples of this ancient concrete, he and his team determined that the white inclusions were, indeed, made out of various forms of calcium carbonate. And spectroscopic examination provided clues that these had been formed at extreme temperatures, as would be expected from the exothermic reaction produced by using quicklime instead of, or in addition to, the slaked lime in the mixture. Hot mixing, the team has now concluded, was actually the key to the super-durable nature.

“The benefits of hot mixing are twofold,” Masic says. “First, when the overall concrete is heated to high temperatures, it allows chemistries that are not possible if you only used slaked lime, producing high-temperature-associated compounds that would not otherwise form. Second, this increased temperature significantly reduces curing and setting times since all the reactions are accelerated, allowing for much faster construction.”

During the hot mixing process, the lime clasts develop a characteristically brittle nanoparticulate architecture, creating an easily fractured and reactive calcium source, which, as the team proposed, could provide a critical self-healing functionality. As soon as tiny cracks start to form within the concrete, they can preferentially travel through the high-surface-area lime clasts. This material can then react with water, creating a calcium-saturated solution, which can recrystallize as calcium carbonate and quickly fill the crack, or react with pozzolanic materials to further strengthen the composite material. These reactions take place spontaneously and therefore automatically heal the cracks before they spread. Previous support for this hypothesis was found through the examination of other Roman concrete samples that exhibited calcite-filled cracks.
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#103

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Pantheon in Rome. Built 1900 years ago. Still the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world. Diameter 43 metres. Tamped not poured. The oldest building in the world still in continuous use
http___cdn.cnn.com_cnnnext_dam_assets_201113163104-03-pantheon-rome-history-test-of-time-restricted.jpg
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#104

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What a beautiful object this is, and shows how the flint blades could be handled. It's not often that the blade handles survive like this.

Neolithic knife, blade of flint, fastened with birch tar in a handle made of wood.
Found at Wangen-Hinterhorn, Lake Constance, dating 3800-3500 BC.

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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#105

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The ingenuity of the human race is truly amazing
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#106

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MA23-Peru-Early-Ayahuasca.jpg
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https://www.archaeology.org/issues/503- ... -ayahuasca
Analysis of hair from 22 mummies found in southern Peru has revealed the earliest known use of San Pedro cactus, a source of mescaline, and the psychoactive plants that make up the drug ayahuasca. The majority of the mummies were unearthed in Cahuachi, a religious center used by the Nazca people starting around 100 B.C. Coca plants and the Banisteriopsis caapi plant, better known as the liana vine, are among the substances detected in the mummies’ hair. The plants are not native to the region and were probably transported across the Andes Mountains. Researchers found that the drugs of choice changed over time. Ayahuasca and mescaline became less favored and coca consumption became more common after the Wari Empire conquered the Nazca around A.D. 750.



This shift may indicate changes in religious rituals surrounding human sacrifice. The find included four trophy heads, including one belonging to a child, who were sacrificial victims, but there is very little evidence of what role psychoactive substances played in the rituals. Bioarchaeologist Dagmara Socha of the University of Warsaw believes the antidepressant effects of the drugs may have been an important reason for their use. “In the case of the children that were sacrificed,” she says, “they were given Banisteriopsis caapi, probably because it was important for them to go happily to the gods.”
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#107

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Shulishader Axe.
What a whole axe would have looked like..

Neolithic polished-stone axe with original wooden handle found on the Isle of Lewis, Outer Hebrides. Dated 3500-3000 BC.

Photo Alison Fisk
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#108

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The Vindolanda pestle, detachable part of a statue or wooden dildo?
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Carved from young ash.

First interpreted as a darning tool.

New analysis of wooden phallus found in UK

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals ... 695624102E
The anaerobic conditions at the Roman fort of Vindolanda, close to Hadrian's Wall in northern Britain, have famously preserved a variety of finds made of organic materials, including wooden writing tablets and a pair of leather boxing gloves. Here, the authors re-examine a wooden object originally recovered in 1992, re-interpreting the find as a large, disembodied phallus. Stone and metal phalli are known from across the Roman world, but the Vindolanda example is the first wooden phallus to be recognised. Combining evidence for potential use-wear with a review of other archaeological and contextual information, the authors consider various possible interpretations of the function and significance of the Vindolanda phallus during the second century AD.
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#109

Post by Del.Monte »

Sorry, that sounds like an OPW interpretation of the item. Looks - to uneducated me - like a club with an age related crack at the end of the handle. :D

On checking what 10cms is in real money - it must have been a toy club!
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#110

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😁 no it's definitely a phallus. Very popular with the Romans. What makes it unusual is that the wood survived. The article is interesting. I think a pestle used for making fertility remedies in a mortar is likely myself. The wear is on the club end and the other end, not in the middle. Although not specifically grinding wear on club end, but it could have been a symbolic pestle. Although I wonder if so would they be able to pick up really minute traces of plant residue? Maybe not yet with the techniques available - fats are easier to get traces on.
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#111

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Del.Monte wrote: Sun Feb 26, 2023 9:35 am Sorry, that sounds like an OPW interpretation of the item. Looks - to uneducated me - like a club with an age related crack at the end of the handle. :D

On checking what 10cms is in real money - it must have been a toy club!
16cm. Well within the bounds of possibility 😉
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#112

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isha wrote: Sun Feb 26, 2023 9:42 am 16cm. Well within the bounds of possibility 😉
I did say that I was 'uneducated' and I didn't notice the 10cm was just a key for scale not the full length. Proving once again that this male can't multi-task...as I have RTE on in the background. :mrgreen:
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#113

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I meant to put in this image ages ago. I had to check it wasn't a spoof, it's a person standing in front of the Gigantic temple of Bachus in Baalbek, Lebanon. Definitely on my bucket list to see in person!

Likely 2nd century CE

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temple-of-bacchus-one-of-the-best-preserved-and-3-1-2017-9-29-57-pm-l.jpg
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#114

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Another cave in France with art. This time the Cussac cave (grotte) which is notable for how many cave etchings it has and the size of some of them. Discovered in 2000.

About 800 cave engravings, 25000 years old, plus interesting palaeolithic burials in former bear hibernation nests, two of which had first been painted with ochre.

The cave has very high levels of carbon dioxide so scientists can only be in there for less than three hours at a time. I like these horses and the woman carving. Lots of jokes eg paleoporn and Neolithicc... but to me she looks like she is giving birth or has just given birth. But open to interpretation.

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Another interesting thing they have studied in the cave is footprints left in the clay. The digits were not visible in the human footprints but were in the bear prints which suggests the humans wore soft footwear.

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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#115

Post by Norman Breaks »

Anyone familiar with the Pumapunka site in Bolivia?

Lot's of amazing rocks with perfect right angles carved into them. Some interesting magnetism to the rocks too. Many really uniform holes in the rocks and lots of theories about what it was all for.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumapunku

We still don't know how they made the 90 degree interior and exterior angle so perfectly. I watched a video recently that suggests they actually poured the rock like concrete.
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#116

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For isha from "Lavhline" today. What do you make of this?

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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#117

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Hard to say as I know nothing about it's provenance. Height, where and when found, dating done?

To me initially it looks like a vernacular whittling, modern-ish in the sense that it wouldn't be older than a couple of hundred years old at the very outside. Likely last century? The clothing looks modern-ish (by that I mean not historical).
But all that initial impression could be completely wrong and it could very well be an ancient bog deity playing a fiddle with his / her sword!!

What do you know about it?
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#118

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isha wrote: Thu Mar 23, 2023 2:21 pm Hard to say as I know nothing about it's provenance. Height, where and when found, dating done?

To me initially it looks like a vernacular whittling, modern-ish in the sense that it wouldn't be older than a couple of hundred years old at the very outside. Likely last century? The clothing looks modern-ish (by that I mean not historical).
But all that initial impression could be completely wrong and it could very well be an ancient bog deity playing a fiddle with his / her sword!!

What do you know about it?
Apparently it was found about fifty years ago in a hand cut sod of turf - after about an hour of waffle with Joe Duffy some expert now reckons it's about 200 years old. So you were right. :D
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#119

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Del.Monte wrote: Thu Mar 23, 2023 2:38 pm Apparently it was found about fifty years ago in a hand cut sod of turf - after about an hour of waffle with Joe Duffy some expert now reckons it's about 200 years old. So you were right. :D
I'm a bit surprised that it is actually 200 years old. I thought that would be the outside age of it. If it is that age, it's a lovely and unusual find.
Bogs. Great places 👍😊
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#120

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Absolutely fascinating article here about the Shamaness of Bad Durrenberg. Burial approx 9000 years ago of a 25-35 years old woman with complex headdress made of multiple types of animal bones. The article talks about more recent studies of the grave. And her medical conditions which would have made her unusual. Interestingly two headdresses were buried nearby her grave, pointing towards it, though 600 years later, which indicates longevity of the ancestral worship in the religion.


https://www.archaeology.org/issues/501- ... man-burial

The image of possible reconstruction of headdress included.

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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#121

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I'm slowly making my way through this really fascinating video and hopefully becoming more knowledgeable about Neanderthals. Good references to recent studies, and excavations. Can only vouch for the first two hours, as the last hour I will get to over the day....

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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#122

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Video of amazing chat with Lee Berger from a few days ago. Mind blowing stuff. Some don't believe it, I choose to believe!





https://www.google.ie/amp/s/www.african ... discovery/




South Africa -based American explorer and scientist Lee Berger announced the discovery for the first time of a non-human species that uses symbols to mark their dead.

On Monday the scientist announced that he had proof that between 200,000 and 300,000 BC , Homo Naledi , a species with a brain the size of a chimpanzee's, buried its dead and engraved symbols on the walls of the tombs.

"We are going to tell the world that we have discovered a non-human species, that had fire and controlled it, and went into incredibly difficult- to-reach spaces, and buried its dead in a ritual fashion, over and over and over again. And while they were doing that, they carved symbols on the wall above it", said palaeontologist Lee Berger . Some experts however remain "sceptical" of his theory and require exceptional evidence to validate Berger's claims.

"Anybody who's worked with Lee Berger knows that he is very enthusiastic and super passionate about the subject. And, he gets to a point where he can't contain himself, like he is really.. he's trying very hard not to burst at the seams but he does sometimes and it's like ok whoa, just relax a little bit, fill me in what is happening and then of course I need to pull myself back in because I also get excited, I am also that type of person", said Keneiloe Molopyane , Lee berger's trainee. Dominic Stratford , Professor of Geo-archaeology at Witwatersrand University added:

"From my perspective and not having unfortunately been into the chamber, I am sceptical at this point because I am not sure that they have accounted for every other potential process that's brought these bones together", said the academic.

In 2013 , Lee Berger discovered the richest deposit of hominid fossils in Africa and introduced the world to Homo Naledi .
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#123

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This is so beautiful. Even though swords etc are battle stuff. Regardless, 3000 years old and just discovered in Nordlingen in Germany - a bronze sword with a hexagonal hilt. I include photos of the press release though it's in German. Can't find English media on it.

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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#124

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isha wrote: Thu Jun 15, 2023 7:38 am This is so beautiful. Even though swords etc are battle stuff. Regardless, 3000 years old and just discovered in Nordlingen in Germany - a bronze sword with a hexagonal hilt. I include photos of the press release though it's in German. Can't find English media on it.

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Was watching a programme last night and the subject of these highly decorative swords came up and apparently, that's just what they were. They weren't used in battle but just for showing off. Apparently, scientists can tell by the wear on the handle of a sword, (mostly the blades don't survive) what way it was wielded and most of the highly decorated ones don't show signs of being used for fighting. So humans haven't changed that much, you still keep your best gear for going out on a Saturday night.
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Re: Interesting Archaeological Artefacts

#125

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These fuckers should be dragged over the coals, but so should the government. Any of the items recovered will never see the light of day as they will be stored in the bowels of the governments offices, due to there being so many there, they can examine or process them.

As for over 70 holes being dug on national heritage sites, thats appalling. There needs to be a complete re visit on existing laws so that genuine detectorists who persue their hobby can enjoy it, safely without fear of prosecution.
Metal detectorist convicted and fined €1k for failing to report discovery of archaeological objects
The Irish Examiner reported last March on the damage caused by rogue treasure hunters to two protected national monument sites in Cork, with investigations ongoing.
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